Kashgar Airport is located around 10 kilometers to the north of the ciy, around 10 kilometers away from it. There are daily flights between Kashgar and Urumqi. Flights from Kashgar to Urumqi takes around 45 minutes and costs about 1,200 yuan(150 usd). Travelers take bus No 2 or CAAC shuttle bus to commute between the airport and the city. CAAC shuttle bus takes about 10 yuan.
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Kashgar is the terminal point of the Nanjiang Railway(South Xinjiang Railway). There are two train services traveling between Kashgar and Urumqi. Along the rail line is some popular tourist cities including Turpan, Korla.
Although train travel is convenient and relatively cheap, it is time consuming and the conditions of train running on that route are generally inferior to those on the larger routes.
Kashgar has built a comprehensive highway network with highways spreading over to the neighboring cities, towns and beyond. Highway stretches northeastward along Aksu, Kuqa, Korla Turpan to Urumqi. Buses frequently ply on the Kashgar to Urumqi highway. A bus trip from Kashgar to Urumqi takes around 28 hours. There are also buses between Kashgar and Dunhuang in Gansu province and Golmud, the starting point of the Qinghai-Tibet railway.
There are long-distance coaches that run from Kashgar to Sust in Pakistan. Sust is a border town between China and Pakistan. The coach ride takes about 15 hours: 9 hours for the first day, and another 6 hours for the next day. For the evening of the first day, the coach will stop over in Taxian (Ta County) where passengers need to find accommodation by themselves. Passengers can buy tickets and board the coach at International Bus Station located next to Toman River Hotel.
Note that the road condition is not very good, and in case there is not sufficient number of passengers (the minimum is said to be ten or so), the coach may be cancelled and passengers need to wait 1-5 days till there are sufficient numbers. Besides, roads are blocked by snow during winter.
This is Christy from China Highlights Travel in China.
You can take train from Qingdao to Xian, K172(13:42-next day10:42), about 21 hours, then from Xi an to Urumqi, T38(23:13-next day 06:06), about 31 hours, then from Urumqi to Kashgar, 7556 (11:58- next day20:37), about 32 hours.
But you will be on the train all the time. it would be tired. I highly recommend you taking flight instead.