January is the coldest month in Nanjing. The maximum temperature is 7 °C (45 °F) and the minimum temperature is –1 °C (30°F). It rains a little so the weather is rather cold and dry with wind of 4 to 5 (on a scale of 1 to 12). If you go outside, wear a down jacket or a fur coat to avoid catching a cold. Ultraviolet radiation is weak and you can go out without special skin protection. If you stay outdoors longer, wear sunscreen with SPF 8–12 to protect your skin.
January is a festive month in China. Chinese New Year (the Spring Festival) takes places at the end of this month or early to mid February. The festival brings many cultural activities to the streets. In addition to the Spring Festival, two traditional days are highlighted, the Jinlin Lantern Show and Pa Qiang Tou. From the 1st to the 18th of January in the Chinese lunar calendar, the Jinlin Lantern Show is held in the Confucius Temple. People crowd to the temple to enjoy the lantern show. Pa Qiang Tou is an outdoor activity, and people usually climb to the top of the city wall (Zhong Hua Men) on January 16 in the Chinese lunar calendar. Pa Qiang Tou helps people get rid of illnesses and achieve peace and harmony.
Since the Spring Festival falls at the end of this month or in early to mid February, this is the busiest travel time all over the country and trains and flights are fully booked days before departure.