China is one of the world's four ancient civilizations; here we give a concise overview of more than 5000 years of Chinese history, including the Great Wall and the four great inventions of ancient China. Do you know what they are?
The written history of China can be said to date back to the Shang Dynasty (1600–1046 BC), over 3,000 years ago. The first dynasty was founded in the 21st century B.C., and China was first unified in 221 B.C.
The founding of China's first dynasty, Xia Dynastyin the 21st century B.C. marked a change from a primitive society to a slave society. Slave society developed further during the Shang (16th-11th century B.C.) and the Western Zhou (11th century-770 B.C.) Dynasties.
This era was followed by the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods (770-221 B.C.), and the transition from the slave society to feudal society.
In 221 B.C., Ying Zheng, a man of great talent and bold vision, ended the rivalry among the independent principalities in the Warring States Period.
He established the first centralized, unified, multi-ethnic state in Chinese history, under the Qin Dynasty (221-207 B.C.). He called himself Shi Huang Di (the First Emperor), also known as Qin Shi Huang, or First Emperor of the Qin Dynasty.
During his reign, Qin Shi Huang standardized the script, currencies, and weights and measures, established the system of prefectures and counties, and began the construction of the world-renowned Great Wall . He also built a large palace, a mausoleum (the Terracotta Army), and temporary regal lodges in Xi’anyang, Lishan, and other places.
At the end of the Qin Dynasty, Liu Bang, a peasant leader, overthrew the Qin regime in cooperation with Xi’ang Yu, an aristocratic general. A few years later, Liu Bang defeated Xi’ang Yu and established the strong Han Dynasty in 206 B.C.
During the Han Dynasty (206 B.C.-A.D. 220), agriculture, handicrafts, and commerce were well developed. During the reign of Emperor Wudi (Liu Che, 140-87 B.C.), the Han regime reached the period of its greatest prosperity. The multi-ethnic country became more united during the Han regime, which existed in total 426 years.
The emperor conquered the Xiongnu nomads, sent Zhang Qian as an envoy to the Western Regions (Central Asia), and in the process pioneered the route known as the "Silk Road" from the Han capital Chang' an through Xinjiang to Europe.
One of the Four Beauties of Ancient China, Wang Zhaojun, was married as a ‘political bride’ to chieftain of the Xiongnu in 33 B.C. Her life and influence created a famous inspiring story about marriage between the Han and the Xiongnu. (See Former Residence of Wang Zhaojun in Yichang, the starting point of the upstream Yangtze Cruise)
Han Dynasty was followed by the Three Kingdoms Period (220-265) of Wei, Shu, and Wu. It was followed by the Jin (265-420), the Southern and Northern Dynasties (420-589), and the Sui Dynasty (581-618).
A jade item displayed at Beijing Forbidden City Museum.
After the Tang Dynasty, came the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (907-960).
In 960, General Zhao Kuangyin of the Later Zhou Dynasty rose in mutiny, and founded the Song Dynasty (960-1279).
In 1206 Genghis Khan unified all the tribes in Mongolia and founded the Mongol Khanate. In 1271, his grandson, Kublai Khan, conquered the Central Plain, founded the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368), and made Dadu (today's Beijing) the capital.
During the Song and Yuan dynasties, handicraft industry and domestic and foreign trade boomed. Many merchants and travelers came from abroad. Marco Polo from Venice traveled extensively in China, later describing the country's prosperity in his book ‘Travels’.
The "four great inventions" of the Chinese people in ancient times, paper making, printing, the compass and gunpowder, were further developed in the Song and Yuan dynasties, and introduced to foreign countries.
In 1368, Zhu Yuanzhang founded the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) in Nanjing, and reigned as Emperor Taizu. When his son, and successor, Zhu Di, ascended the throne, he started to build the palace, temples, city walls, and moat in Beijing. In 1421, he officially made Beijing his capital.
In the late Ming Dynasty, the Manchus in northeast China grew in strength. Under the leadership of Nurhachi, the Manchus invaded the Central Plain for three generations in succession, and finally founded the Qing Dynasty(1644-1911).
The two most famous emperors of the Qing Dynasty were Emperor Kangxi (r. 1661-1772) and Emperor Qianlong (r. 1735-1796). The Kangxi and Qianlong reign periods were known as the "times of prosperity".
China was reduced to a semi-colonial and semi-feudal country since the first Opium War in 1840. The Revolution of 1911, led by Dr. Sun Yat-sen, ended the rule of the Qing Dynasty.
The Revolution of 1911 is of great significance in modern Chinese history: the monarchical system was discarded with the founding of the provisional government of the Republic of China.
The victory was soon compromised by concessions on the part of the Chinese bourgeoisie, and the country entered a period dominated by the Northern Warlords, headed by Yuan Shikai.
Since the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, China has entered a new Communist era of stability, with the Reform and Opening Up policies of 1978, bringing in China’s phenomenal economic growth.
|Prehistoric Times||1.7 million years - the 21st century BC|
|Xia Dynasty||2070–1600 BC||Xia County in Shanxi Province||Yu||Bronzeware|
|Shang Dynasty||1600–1046 BC||Xiangqiu in Henan Province||Tang||Bronzeware|
|Zhou Dynasty||Western Zhou||1046–771 BC||Xi'an||King Wu of Zhou|
|Eastern Zhou||Spring and Autumn Period||770–476 BC||King Ping of Zhou||Philosophical and Religious Literature|
|Warring States Period||475–221 BC||Philosophical and Religious Literature|
|Qin Dynasty||221–206 BC||Xi'an||Qinshihuang||Terracotta Army, the Great Wall|
|Han Dynasty||Western Han||206 BC–AD 9||Xi'an||Emperor Liubang||The Silk Road|
|Three Kingdoms||Wei||220-265||Luoyang||Cao Pi|
|Jin Dynasty||Western Jin||265–317||Luoyang||Simayan||Tomb fresco|
|Southern and Northern Dynasties||420–589||Sacred Grottos|
|Sui Dynasty||581–618||Xi'an||Yangjian||The Grand Canal|
|Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms||907–960||Kaifeng|
|Song Dynasty||Northern Song||960–1127||Kaifeng||Zhao Kuangyin|
|Southern Song||1127–1279||Lin'an in Zhejiang||Zhao Gou|
|Liao Dynasty||916–1125||Liaoning||Yelü Abaoji|
|Dali Kingdom||937–1254||Dali||Dali Ancient Town|
|Western Xia Dynasty||1032-1227||Yinchuan||Rock Carvings|
|Yuan Dynasty||1271–1368||Beijing||Genghis Khan||Novels|
|Ming Dynasty||1368–1644||Beijing||Hongwu Emperor||The Great Wall, the Forbidden City|
|Qing Dynasty||1644-1911||Beijing||Nurhaci||Summer-palace, the Forbidden City|
|Republic of China||1911-1949||Nanjing|
|People's Republic of China||From 1949||Beijing||Chairman Mao|