Home China Guide Beijing Beijing Facts

Beijing Facts

Name: Beijing (北京Běijīng /bay-jing/)

Previous names: Peking, Beiping, Dadu, Jingcheng, and Yanjing

Beijing, China's second largest city after Shanghai, dominates the north of China, despite its proximity to the ports of Tianjin Municipality, China's third largest city.

Features

Main Attractions

the great wallThe Great Wall

History

Capital of 8 notable dynasties and governments:

  • 221 BC Yan State Capital, Warring States Period
  • 1271 first a national capital for the Yuan Dynasty
  • 1402 Became Ming Dynasty (1368–1644) capital
  • 1644 Qing Dynasty capital
  • 1912 Republic of China capital
  • October 1, 1949 People's Republic of China inaugurated by Mao Zedong
  • 2008: hosted the Olympic Games

Geography

  • Significance of city:capital of the People's Republic of China; political, educational and cultural center, China's No.1 tourist city, China's second largest city.
  • Nearby cities: Tianjin (120km/75mi), Shijiazhuang (230km/140mi), Qinhuangdao (270km/170mi).
  • Municipality terrain: Huabei Plain, 32% plain, 68% mountains, 180 km (110 mi) from the Bohai Sea at Tianjin.
  • Average altitude: 44 meters (144 feet)
  • Main rivers:Yongding, Chaobai and the North Canal.

Location Information

    The Forbidden City.
  • Municipality location: 39.45N to 41.06N, 115.42 to 117.26E, North China
  • Municipality Population:19,600,000
  • Municipality Area:16,800 sq km (6,487 sq mi)
  • Built up area: 3,200 sq km (1,200 sq mi)
  • Core districts and inner suburbs area:1,400 sq km (540 sq mi)
  • City proper population: 11,700,000
  • City proper population density: 7,400/sq km
  • North to south distance (including suburbs): 64 km (40 mi)
  • East to west distance (including suburbs): 64 km (40 mi)
  • City center: Tian'anmen (39.9087N, 116.3974E), between Tian'anmen Square and the Forbidden City

Climate

    Wangfujing Walking Street.
  • Highest temperature:42 °C (109 °F)
  • Lowest temperature: -27 °C (-17 °F)
  • Dry, annual precipitation: 570 mm (22 in)
  • Known for air pollution (improved dramatically since the 2008 Olympics) and dust storms

Economy

  • Average annual income (2008): 36,000 RMB (4,600 USD)
  • Development: rich and well-developed, behind only Shanghai and Hong Kong
  • Industry: 73% tertiary industry (especially finance), also automobile and real estate, pharmaceuticals, electronics, and materials engineering.
  • CBD: Guomao Area (39.91N, 116.46E), Chaoyang District
  • Shopping Streets: Wangfujing Street

Transportation

Facts of major cities and attractions in China