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Nanjing Facts

Written by Ruru ZhouUpdated Jan. 13, 2021

Name: Nanjing (南京; Nánjīng /nan-jing/)
Meaning: 'southern capital'
Previous names: Nanking, Yecheng, Yuecheng, Moling, Jiankang, Jiangning, Tianjing


  • One of the four great capital cities of ancient empires
  • Ancient architecture, parks, and amusement parks
  • East coast transportation hub

Main Attractions

  • Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum, China Gate, Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum, and Lingqu Temple, President Palace, Confucius Temple
  • Most popular souvenirs and local products: velvet, satin, imitation ivory, Yuhua Pebbles, Chinese painting and calligraphy
  • Most popular local food: xiaolongbao, tangbao (soup dumpling), yashui duck, eight delicacies soup


The city is in a region that is surrounded by mountains that made access difficult until recent decades. This preserved some of the traditional culture of the area. Nearby Huangshan Mountain has long been an attraction for travellers for hundreds of years.

  • 333 Chu built Jingling Yi.
  • 229 Sun Quan established his capital here during the Three Kingdoms era following the Han Empire era.
  • 1368 The Ming Empire established their new capital.
  • 1853 The Taiping army captured Nanjing, and it was their capital city during their rule.
  • 1927 The Nationalist government made it their capital city.
  • 1937 The Japanese army captured the city, and a large percentage of the population died.


  • Significance of the city: Nanjing is one of China's main business, industrial and education centers. Throughout history, it has often been an imperial capital city or one of the biggest cities in the world.
  • Nearby cities: Shanghai (242 km/150 mi), Hangzhou (225 km/140 mi), Huangshan (262 km/163 mi), Suzhou (215 km/135 mi)
  • Elevation: 15 m (56 ft)
  • Municipality terrain: The city is in the Yangtze River basin plain with the Yangtze River to the west and the Ningzheng River on the other sides. Mountains dot the plain.
  • Main rivers: Yangtze River and Qinhuai River

Location Information

  • Municipality location: East China.
  • Municipality population: 8,004,000
  • Municipality area: 6,600 sq km (2,548 sq mi)
  • Municipality population density: 1,214/sq km (3,143/sq mi)
  • North to south distance of main urban area: 17 km (10.5 mi)
  • East to west distance of main urban area: 18.3 km (11.4 mi)
  • City center: Xinjiekou area


  • Annual average low temperature in January: -1 °C (30.2 °F)
  • Annual average high temperature in July and August: 32 °C (89.6 °F)
  • Humid subtropical climate with four distinct seasons; annual precipitation: 1,062 mm (42 in)

Summers are hot and humid, and the winters are cold and damp.


  • Average annual income: (2010) 68,510 RMB (9,929 USD)
  • Development: developed; Nanjing is an inland port city and transportation hub. It is also the educational center for Jiangsu Province.
  • Industry: 50.7% tertiary industry (services, financial services), 46.5% secondary (electronics, petrochemicals, steel, automobile), 2.8% primary (agriculture)
  • CBD: Xinjiekou area (32.04N, 118.78E)
  • Shopping Streets: Xinjiekou, Hunan Road, area around Confucius Temple


  • Nanjing Lukou International Airport is one of the top 15 busiest in the country.
  • 3 train stations
  • 2 bullet train lines to Shanghai.
  • 2 line subway
  • 60 highways meet there.
  • Nanjing is a transportation hub for eastern China south of the Yangtze River.
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